No Animals Were Harmed - All About Animal Actors
Q: What is the American Humane Film & TV Unit?
A: American Humane (AH) Film & TV Unit is based in Los Angeles and we monitor the use of animals in media. American Humane is a national organization with headquarters based in Denver, Colorado. I'm one of the Certified Animal Safety Representatives who go on set and monitor the use of animals in film and television. We award the "No Animals Were Harmed® in the Making of this Movie" disclaimer seen at the end of the credits in a movie.
Q: How did the American Film & TV Unit start?
A: Back in 1926, AH set up a committee to investigate abuses of animals in the movie industry. At that time, horses were the most at-risk animal actors. But, then, as now, animals have no inherent legal rights, so we couldn't mandate the safety of the animal actors. In 1939, for the film "Jesse James," a horse and rider were sent hurling over a 70-foot cliff into a raging river for an action shot. The stuntman was fine, but the horse's back was broken in the fall and it died. Outrage over this sparked a new relationship between AH and some motion picture directors and producers and caused the Hays Office to include humane treatment of animals in the Motion Picture Code. The following year, AH received authorization to monitor the production of movies using animals. We worked on set for quite a while after that until the Hays Office was disbanded in 1966, ending our jurisdiction and excluding us from sets. This was a pretty dismal time for animal actors who were being used in some brutal ways. Then, in the early 1980s, another incident caused another public outcry and American Humane was added to the agreement with SAG that mandated that union films contact us if they were using animals. This agreement now includes any filmed media form, including television, commercials, direct-to-video projects, and music videos. A more detailed history is on our website. Right now, we monitor about 900 films a year, maybe more. That's not counting commercials.
Q: Did you say animal actors no have legal rights?
A: That's correct. Animals have no "legal" rights in the sense that humans have. But because of our SAG agreement, animal actors in SAG films have "contractual" rights because the AH office must be contacted by productions using animals and an AH Film & TV Unit representative be on set during the filming.
Q: What about nonunion productions?
A: Nonunion productions are not contractually bound to contact us, but we find that a lot of people want us there anyway. I've worked with several productions that say - "We want you here. We want that rating at the end of our film and we want people to know what we had you on set."
Q: So people on set are happy to see you?
A: Generally yes, but sometimes no. Actors always love seeing us there. They look at the AH patches on my jacket and come up to me constantly on set and say - "Oh, you're here for the animals. That's so great, I'm so happy you're here." That's what we want. We want people to look for us, to know we're there, and why we're there. As for production, it depends on their perception of us and if they've worked with us in the past. People we've worked with before love having us there. The ones who haven't worked with us before sometimes think "oh, no, here comes the animal police to patrol us," like I'm going to stand there with my hands on my hips telling them what they can and can't do. It's not like that. We're not there to criticize. We're there to work with filmmakers, not against them. If we see a problem, we'll address it and work it out together. In Florida, for instance, one of the big concerns is heat. During one production, the producer wanted a dog to walk back and forth across the pavement. I told the director there was a problem with this. I already knew he didn't like having me on set, but I told him anyway, "You take off your shoes and walk across that street." He went out to the street, put his hand on the pavement, and said - "Yeah, you're right." He wasn't trying to harm the animal, he just wasn't thinking about the animal, the heat, and the pavement. That's part of the reason we're on set. We don't expect filmmakers to also be animal experts. Even producers who personally don't care about animals usually realize it makes sense for them to have us there. Many people say they won't watch a movie in which they think or have heard that an animal was injured or killed. People look for the AH disclaimer at the end of movies saying - "No Animals Were Harmed® in the Making of this Film."
Q: How do filmmakers get a "No Harm" disclaimer for their movies?
A: The process starts when production contacts our Los Angeles office to let us know that they plan to use animals. We direct them to our Guidelines which are available on the internet and we request their script. We review the script and arrange to come in and observe the animal action to ensure that the conditions in which the animals are working and kept is safe and comfortable. This doesn't cost the union production anything - that's part of the arrangement with the SAG office.
Q: What about nonunion productions? Can they get this "No Animals were Harmed®" disclaimer?
A: The process to get the disclaimer is the same, only there's a $30 an hour fee for the hours we're on set. The time we spend in pre-production script evaluation and then screening the films and writing up reviews is included in that $30 an hour on set fee.
Q: Can student and independent filmmakers get your disclaimer?
A: Definitely, if they meet the guidelines for it. If they have questions, all they need to do is call our LA office and ask. Our LA office is happy to help young and aspiring filmmakers with guidance and information on safely using animals in their films. If they're in the process of writing a script, they can call us and ask if certain scenes are feasible and for advice on how to get the scenes and action they want. Productions who can't get an AH representative on set because of cost or scheduling conflicts can write down what it is they plan to do, document the filming of the animal action with a little video, a behind the scenes - this is how we did it, kind of thing - and send it in. We review it and though we can't say we were actually there, we can say that through our review, it looks like the production followed the Guidelines. That rating is called: "Not Monitored: Production Compliant."
Q: How many ratings are there?
A: We have several ratings which range from our highest "Monitored: Outstanding" and receiving the "No Animals Were Harmed"® disclaimer which appears in the end credits of the film, to "Not Monitored," to our lowest rating which is "Monitored Unacceptable" - where our guidelines and animal safety were disregarded and or negligence caused the injury or death of an animal. Striving for a good rating helps ensure that the production will go well. If a production is half way through shooting and an animal that is key to the movie gets spooked and gets loose or injured, it's like losing a lead human actor. What's the producer going to do? Re-shoot the animal scenes with another animal actor? Rewrite the script? Scrap the movie? Professional trainers have several different dogs with different talents that look alike. One's a really good barking dog, one's a really good jumping dog, another does something else. That helps in the event one dog gets sick or injured, it won't halt filming. A lot of the worst scenarios can be avoided with planning. I look for potential problems and to keep everything as safe as possible for everyone. There can always be accidents, there's no way to prevent that. That happens in life. You can work to make things as safe as possible, but there can still be accidents. We understand that. The bottom line is at that any time filmmakers plan to use animals, even their own pets, they should contact our LA office.
Whether or not one of us comes out to your set, they should refer to our Guidelines For the Safe Use of Animals in Filmed Media so they know what they need to prepare for, to say to themselves - this is what I need to prepare for if I'm going to use an animal on my production. Am I prepared to do what I need to do to make sure that everything is safe for my animal? Having us involved benefits the production in that if there's ever any question as to how a stunt was done the filmmaker can say - call AH. Filmmakers with the reputation of abusing animals for the sake of producing a film or commercial won't get hired and people won't want to watch their movies. We are the only organization authorized to make and uphold these standards and people look for it. When people see animals in films, they look to see that no animals were harmed. If they have any questions on how things were done, they can go to our website and read about it. They can see that this stunt that looks absolutely horrible was actually done with computer graphics, a real animal wasn't even involved.
Q: Are personal pets allowed to be in movies?
A: Our Guidelines recommend that filmmakers use professional animal actors obtained through trainers, but we know that filmmakers, especially small independent and student filmmakers are going to use their own pets or the pets of friends and family in their movies. We understand that, that's a reality in this business. But even if it's no more than filming their own pet cat or dog sitting in a chair or walking across the room, filmmakers should get in the habit of contacting our office. When producers choose dogs, for instance, they should look for dogs with outgoing personalities, dogs that aren't afraid of people. Fear can cause a disaster. The dog can bite someone out of fear if they get in a situation in which they're not comfortable. If more than one dog is to be used on set, the dogs should be used to being around other dogs. If one dog shows aggression toward another dog on set, the aggressive dog must be removed. Dogs that live together and are accustomed to being with each other are good choices.
Q: You mentioned education as being part of the goal of AH. Would you talk some about that?
A: We'd like to work more with film schools developing programs where as part of the curriculum, students take a course or attend a seminar held by an AH representative about using animals in film. If the school can't put us into their program yet, just having our Guidelines available at the school or distributed to students will help educate them. The earlier we reach the students, the better. These filmmakers will grow in their careers and will eventually be involved in large productions where they might end up working on films with large animals. That's the point where you really worry about safety, so the earlier we can educate students, the better.
Q: What can you advise students or aspiring filmmakers wanting to use pets? Your Guidelines can look daunting.
A: If filmmakers choose to use a pet instead of trained animal, we have no control over that but we still recommend they review and adhere to our Guidelines. If the Guidelines seem overwhelming, call our LA office with questions, say - "All I want is for my dog to sit in a chair or walk across the room while we're doing our filming, what are the guidelines?" Most of it is just common sense. Know that the animal you're using is friendly and completely safe to be around people and other animals. You don't want an animal on set that's aggressive, skittish, or snaps. Think about what you're going to do with this animal while you're setting up shots. How many times do you actually need the real animal? Can you use a stuffed animal if there's any concern about using a real animal? You don't want a real dog sitting under hot lights while you're setting up. Go to a toy store and get a stuffie look-alike of whatever animal you're using. Make sure the animal won't be in the way of a moving dolly and that she won't be in area in which she can get stepped on. When she's not being used on set have a suitable place for her to hang out, that she's not running around loose. There needs to be a safe area like a crate or separate room for the animal. Make sure the pet has breaks and gets to lie down and rest or get something to eat and drink. If the pet isn't kept in a crate, make sure it's on a harness or leash so that should she get spooked by a loud noise or quick movement, she can't jump down and run away. Plan ahead and prepare for all possible scenarios. That's critical. If an animal won't do what you want, what are your options? Have back up plans. How far should you go to try to get an animal to do something? If the animal won't or can't do what you want him to do, forcing him is inviting disaster. Even if the animal normally does something, an animal is an animal. You can never predict what it's going to do or not do. It's like working with a child. The producer has to be prepared.
Q: Who is responsible for the safety of a pet during filming?
A: The ultimate responsibility lies with the owners as they will suffer the anguish and grief if something happens to their pet. I recommend that pets not be passed around to people on set to play with. That can be overstimulating to animals, and if they're all excited, they may not be able to perform the action you want them to perform. Many trainers make a general announcement on set - don't touch animals while they're working. Obviously, with the exotics, people are pretty good about asking before touching them but a lot of times, with dogs and cats, people just walk up and pet them without asking.
Q: Does AH have a problem with certain action shots?
A: If filmmakers wonder if a certain action shot can be obtained safely, call and ask us. If a filmmaker wants a dog to run off the end of the dock and jump into a lake to get an exciting shot, they should make the obvious choice. Pick a Labrador Retriever who loves to swim and run and jump off the dock and has actually practiced this. They shouldn't choose a little Chihuahua that's never been in the water.
Q: How did you get into the field?
A: I grew up in Michigan in a very animal-oriented family. We had the house with the invisible sucker sign hanging on the front of it - animals could see the sign, but we couldn't. Animals constantly showed up at our door and people dumped their puppies and kittens off in our barn. We had dogs, cats, horses, guinea pigs, and hamsters, and just about everything else. As a teenager, I raised and trained a working Seeing Eye dog. After that, I raised a wonderful Doberman for obedience. After college, I tried a few careers, but didn't really care for any of them. In the early 1990s, I moved to Key West, Florida. That was about the time the series "Key West" with Fisher Stevens and Jennifer Tilly was being filmed as a pilot. I accidentally met the medic on set and we started talking. He learned that I was a dive master with dive master medical training and said they'd been looking for someone else to work on set when they went to series. He asked if I was interested and I was. So, I went and got EMT certification and worked on that series as the medic when the other medic wasn't available. After the series ended, I worked fulltime as an EMT paramedic and part time as paramedic in film. I also volunteered with my dog in the education department at the Humane Society of Broward County. We went around to schools and taught pet education to the kids. Through that, I began working as a surgical assistant for the shelter. I was basically done the same things for animals that I was doing for humans. It was hard working for the shelter, for obvious reasons, but it was also very rewarding and I loved it. One day I was watching a movie through the credits and saw the "No Animals Were Harmed® in the Making of this Film" disclaimer and that a representative was on set to monitor all animal action. A light went off in my head - "Hey, that's a job. If somebody was on set that means it's an actual job." I sent my resume to the recruiting office in LA and got an interview. My background with horses and dogs, and dog training, and medical and film experience worked well together for the position. I then went through the AH training which basically teaches film and set etiquette, which I already knew from my experience on set, and learning report writing and the Guidelines. Right now, I live in Virginia. As my husband is in the military, we move around a bit, but as my job requires a lot of travel, I can do it from wherever we're based. Though most of my work is in this area, I've traveled all over the country. I've been to Mexico, Canada, Wyoming.
Q: What films have you worked on locally?
A: Susan Jackson, our representative based in Richmond, and I have worked independently and, in the case of large films such as "Dreamer," we've worked together. During the filming of "Dreamer," producers wanted something that looked like ointment to slather on an animal and they didn't know what to use. Susan suggested a solution of milk and water. So they mixed the milk and water and said - "oh, that's looks really good." Another instance on "Dreamer" was a barn scene. The crew needed the barn cats out before they could start filming. Susan came up with and organized a plan to catch the cats and send them off to be spayed and neutered. By the time filming was done, the cats could come back. It helped everybody. These are simple solutions that have helped producers get the scenes they want. We don't expect filmmakers to be animal experts; that's why we're there. We've been in this business a long time and have a lot of training behind us. A lot can be done with camera tricks, computer graphics, stuffie stunt and photo doubles and some creative solutions. Most recently I was one of the Safety Reps on "Evan Almighty." "Birds and Animals," a huge animal company for the film business supplied the animal talent. They have offices in Florida, California, New York, overseas and have all kinds of animals and I've worked with them for years since I started at AH seven years ago. They're great to work with and have excellent trainers who very concerned about the safety and welfare of their animals. Another huge part of our job is perception. It's often the perception of actors who aren't familiar with animal training. For example, when I was on "Evan Almighty" there was a scene with all these different small animals. One way to lure small animals like skunks, rats, and porcupines from point A to point B is with a buzzer. These little animals can't be trained to come like dog or even a cat. These little animals are taught that when they walk across the room to the buzzer, they get a food reward. One of the actors watching this came over and asked - "Are these animals being shocked?" I said, no, and explained the whole buzzer thing. Without someone like myself being there to ask, this actor could have walked off set thinking that the animals on set were being shocked. It was amazing to watch the whole process on "Evan Almighty." A huge ark was built in Charlottesville, VA, and they had a special camera that exactly replicated every single move of the animals. Animal were brought in one at a time, so if there were forty animals in a scene, they did that take forty different times at least, each time with each different animal. Sometimes there were pairs of animals, sometimes there was only one - the same animal walked across the room twice. It was all put together by computer to look like all these pairs of animals were in the same room, even though they weren't. That was a lot of fun to work on.
I also do the "Puppy Bowl" in Silver Spring, Maryland, at the Discovery Channel which airs on the Animal Planet at the same time as the Super Bowl. A little stage is built that looks like a football field and puppies go out there and play. They have "Kitty Half Time" and a "Tail Gate Party" for the dogs that didn't get into the game. It's hilarious. Initially, they were a little wary of me, but now we have a great relationship. It's nice when you walk off the set and the people you met when you first came in were looking at you like - "here she comes," then say - "thank you so much for being here, we want you back next year."
American Humane was founded in 1877. It is the oldest national organization dedicated to protecting both children and animals. Through a network of child and animal protection agencies and individuals, the American Humane Association develops policies, legislation, curricula and training programs to protect children and animals from abuse, neglect and exploitation. The nonprofit membership organization, headquartered in Denver, raises awareness about The Link® between animal abuse and other forms of violence, as well as the benefits derived from the human-animal bond. American Humane's regional office in Los Angeles is the authority behind the "No Animals Were Harmed"® End Credit Disclaimer on film and TV productions, and American Humane's office in Washington is an advocate for child and animal protection at the federal and state levels. American Humane is endorsed by the Better Business Bureau's Wise Giving Alliance and has been awarded the Independent Charities Seal of Excellence.
Animal actor "Angus," Actor Ken Kline's black Labrador Retriever was cast as "Dog with Man" in "Capitol Law," an ABC Pilot filmed in Washington, D.C., and also on "Shooter" as a quadedestrian in Baltimore's Federal Hill. Ken met American Humane Film & TV Unit representative Sandi Buck on the set of "Evan Almighty" in Richmond, Virginia, where she was overseeing the use of wild animals like bears, wolves, and mountain lions on set. Angus decided stay to home for that particular film.